Hagia Sophia

Hagia Sophia: Religion as Politics

Hagia Sophia: Religion as Politics

July 26, 2020
Sultan Abdul Hamid II, in the face of a rising secular nationalism in the late 1800s, that culminated in the Young Turk movement, tried to restore the influence of the Ottoman Empire among Islamic nat…
Clash of Civilizations, Revisited

Clash of Civilizations, Revisited

July 19, 2020
Late afternoon in May 29, 1453, Sultan Mehmet, the third son of Murad, born of a slave-girl – probably Christian – in the harem, fluent in Turkish, Arabic, Greek, Latin, Persian and Hebrew, followed b…