Azerbaijan Won the War in Nagorno-Karabakh but Reduced Its Sovereignty
Opinion

Azerbaijan Won the War in Nagorno-Karabakh but Reduced Its Sovereignty

Although Azerbaijan won the war against Armenia, both countries have in fact lost part of their sovereignty. Azerbaijan won the war and expanded territorially after it captured or received the districts surrounding Nagorno-Karabakh proper that Armenian forces captured in the first war (1988-1994). The status of Nagorno-Karabakh proper remains undetermined but is protected by Russian…

How Russia Is Building Its Leverage in the Caucasus
Opinion

How Russia Is Building Its Leverage in the Caucasus

A meeting of the leaderships of Russia, Armenia and Azerbaijan in the Kremlin on January 11, exactly two months after the ceasefire in the 44-day Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, can be seen as a robust push by Moscow to consolidate its diplomatic achievement. The ceasefire has gained traction and this is the opportune moment for Russia to…

Sheikh Rohani Stirs Up Trouble in the Middle East
Opinion

Sheikh Rohani Stirs Up Trouble in the Middle East

A very strong antagonism opposes the government of Sheikh Hassan Rohani to the Revolutionary Guards. The latter are not placed under his orders, but depend directly on the Supreme Guide, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. President Rohani’s project: capitalism and regional imperialism Sheikh Rohani is a member of the Shiite clergy, like Ayatollah Khamenei, but not the…

Erdogan Positions Powerful Turkish Military as Backbone of Regional Strategy
Opinion

Erdogan Positions Powerful Turkish Military as Backbone of Regional Strategy

President Recep Tayyip Erdoganushered in the new year, pledging to employ his country’s military to secureTurkey’s place in a rebalanced new world order. Mr. Erdogan spelledout his vision when he inserted himself on December 30 into anaddress by his defense minister, Hulusi Akar, to several hundred masked Turkishand Azeri military officers in the Azerbaijani capital…

Turkish Shadow Boxing Reflects Growing Rivalry with Iran
Opinion

Turkish Shadow Boxing Reflects Growing Rivalry with Iran

Turkey is leveraging its successful backing of Azerbaijan’s recent war against Armenia to counter Iran in the Caucasus and gradually challenge Russia in Central Asia, the heart of what Moscow considers its backyard. The Turkish moves have elicited different responses from Russia and Iran, two countries Turkey views as both partners and rivals. Turkish President…

The Caspian Sea as Battleground
Opinion

The Caspian Sea as Battleground

Populated at the time by fluent Hebrew speakers, the Israel desk of Armenia’s for­eign ministry waited back in 1991— in the immediate wake of the collapse of the Soviet Union—for a phone call that never came. The ministry was convinced that Israel, with whom Armenia shared an experience of genocide, were natural allies. The min­istry…