History of World War I: German Colonialism in Central and Eastern Europe and the Fall of Tsarist Russia

History of World War I: German Colonialism in Central and Eastern Europe and the Fall of Tsarist Russia

When in February 1918, the German politician Prince Max of Baden asked his country’s military dictator, Erich Ludendorff, what would happen if the latter’s spring offensive failed, he replied, “Then Germany will just have to suffer annihilation”. General Ludendorff’s response, which offended Prince Max’s sensitive liberal tastes, would be repeated almost verbatim by Hitler a…

History of World War I and Its Aftermath: The Ludendorff Dictatorship’s Expansionist Policies in Europe

History of World War I and Its Aftermath: The Ludendorff Dictatorship’s Expansionist Policies in Europe

Shortly before midday on 9 November 1923, around 3,000 far-right insurgents began marching on Munich, Germany’s second largest city in the south of the country. Before these brownshirts had set out it was clear to the Nazi Party leader, the 34-year-old Corporal Adolf Hitler, that their coup d’état had already failed. A few hours prior…

The End of Modern Diplomacy

The End of Modern Diplomacy

Modern diplomacy can generally be traced back to the late 19th century and the intercession of professional diplomats in the foreign relations between major and minor powers of the era. International negotiations to resolve problems were primarily handled by diplomats prior to politicians giving their assent to peace treaties and compacts. The Congress of Berlin…